## SIGNALS AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN

 SHE Level 3 SCQF Credit Points 20.00 ECTS Credit Points 10.00 Module Code M3H620587 Module Leader Carlos Gamio-Roffe School School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment Subject Electronic Engineering Trimester A (September start)

### Pre-Requisite Knowledge

Mathematics 1; Signals and Electronic Systems,

### Summary of Content

The aim of this module is to provide students with a foundational knowledge of general signal properties, the design of electronic circuits and systems to perform electronic operations on signals, and the influence and mitigation of signal noise interference. An understanding of the limitations of practical electronic systems and the means of evaluating the performance of electronic systems is emphasised. Building on previous modules, this module also focuses on testing and evaluating designed electronic systems in relation to signal input and output design specifications in order to provide ethical "fit for purpose" qualifications.

### Syllabus

BEHAVIOURAL MODELLING Introduction to and Definition of Laplace Transforms Laplace Transform of Basic Functions Unit-step and Dirac Delta Function Laplace Transform Pairs, Laplace Transform Properties Demonstrate Solving ODE with Laplace Transforms Inverse Laplace Transform Rational Fractions and its Expansion Modelling Electric Components and Networks in Laplace Space Thevenin, Norton and Superposition Theorem in Laplace Space Step and Impulse Response of 1 st and 2 nd Order Networks Determining the Transfer Function, Factoring into Standard Form Poles and Zeros and the Characteristic Polynomial Steady State Sinusoidal Response Bode Plots, Effect of Gain, Poles and Zeros. Examples and Application of Laplace Transforms in Circuit Design Use of Laplace Transfer Blocks in PSPICE Tools to solve Design Problems Passive and Active Filters of 1 st and 2 nd Order AC AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND STABILITY Dynamic Performance of Amplifiers Capacitive Coupling and Shunt Capacitance Frequency and Time Domain Response Behavioural Modelling Frequency and Time Domain Response of Amplifiers Linear and Non-Linear Distortions Open-Loop vs Close-Loop Amplifier Behaviour Phase and Gain Margins Stability Criteria Compensation SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUIT DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION Span and Zero Precision Rectifiers Integrators Differentiators Logarithmic Amplifiers Peak Detectors Design and analysis of Active Filters Configurations Instrumentation Amplifiers (INAs) Limitations of Single Op-Amp INA Design of 3 Op-Amp INA Configuration Applications to Instrumentation Specifications of Commercial INAs Operation and Limitations of isolated INAs Design Solutions and Application Examples SIGNAL NOISE & SIGNAL INTEGRITY IN ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Noise Analysis in Operational Amplifier Circuits Noise Spectral Density Types of Noise: Shot, Thermal, Flicker, Burst and Avalanche Noise Noise Characteristics: Resistor Noise Model, Noise Spectra, Integrating Noise Across Frequency Spectra, Equivalent Noise Bandwidth, Adding Noise Sources OP Amp Circuit Noise Model Inverting and Non-inverting Op Amp Circuit Noise Calculations Using Noise Calculations to Inform Compoent Choice Transmission Lines & Controlled Impedances in Analogue Design Electrical Model of a Lossless Transmission Line. Transmission Line Parameters. Characteristic Impedance, Propagation Velocity, Propagation Delay. Step and Pulse Response of Lines (open, shorted , matched and unmatched) Reflection Coefficent. Characteristics of Guided Transmission Media (Coaxial Cable, Twisted Pair, Microstrip). Determining When Transmission Line Techniques are Required. Microstrip and Stripline Geometries, Design Parameters and Equations Designing Controlled Impedance Traces on PCBs End and Source Termination of High-Speed Analog and Digital Networks Signal Noise & Signal Integrity in Electronic Systems Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Coupling - Common-Impedance Noise - Inductive/Magnetic Field Coupling - Capacitive/Electric Field Coupling - Radiated Emissions Examples from the Digital and Analogue Domains Reducing Common-Impedance Noise - Grounding - PCB Layout and Design - Power Rail De-coupling and By-passing - Filtering - Differential Signalling Reducing Capacitive Coupled Noise - Equivalent Circuit for Capacitive Coupling between Source and Impedance - Electrostatic Shields and Implementation Guidelines - Shielding Subsystems with Different Ground Potentials - Isolation Amplifiers Reducing Magnetic Coupled Noise - Balanced Circuit Connections - Driven Shields and Guarding Evaluation of Shielding and Frequency Dependency EMC Standards and Guidelines Designing for EMC LABORATORY PRACTICE AND USE OF ECAD TOOLS Use PSpice/Cadence Tools to Undertake Circuit Design, and Schematic Capture of Signals in the Frequency and Time Domains for Analysis and Evaluation. Construct Prototype Test Circuits to Meet Specific Signal Design Specifications Evaluate the Performance and Limitations of Electronic Circuits and Signals using Laboratory Test Equipment

### Learning Outcomes

On the completion of this module students should be able to:-Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts and principles related to signal properties, electronic circuit design and signal noise interference.Apply design techniques to produce practical electronic circuits and systems which operate on signals with given properties.Demonstrate appropriate analytical skills, and testing and evaluation strategies to analyse and quantify the behaviour and performance of practical electronic circuit designs.Apply appropriate computer aided design methods in relation to modelling, analysing and evaluating signal properties and signal conditioned electronic design solutions.Apply good practice electronic design methods to reduce the influence signal noise and interference within electronic circuits Demonstrate an understanding of the need for electronic systems design specifications and the ethical and sustainability issues associated with designing electronic systems which are fit for purpose.

### Teaching / Learning Strategy

The module is delivered through a combination of lectures, laboratories and tutorials. The emphasis of the lectures is to provide an underpinning of the concepts and principles of signals properties and designed electronic circuits and systems which perform operations on these signals. The tutorials focus on problem solving and numerical skills in relation to evaluating the influence of noise, and the effective design and evaluation of suitable electronic circuits to meet appropriate electronic design specifications. The laboratories focus on growing and developing three key skill sets within students: - the use of computer aided design (ECAD) tools in the design process to simulate and evaluate anticipated electronic systems and signal performance; - the implementation, testing and performance evaluation of practical electronic circuits and signals - the development of both individual and team/group working skills. The latter is achieved specifically through devolving group design specifications where a suitable integrated electronic design is broken into smaller electronic subsystem designs. Individuals students are responsible for designing, testing and evaluating individual subsystems and the group is responsible for testing and evaluating the integrated performance of the complete electronic system in terms of demonstrating that the system is fit for purpose and meets the design specifications. The material covered during lectures and tutorials will be reinforced and consolidated through on-line formative tests which students can take as part of their independent learning and self reflection. Directed learning is used to supplement and reinforce the material delivered in the module and to place it in the context of good electronic systems practice. Independent study will be encouraged by providing additional case studies, white papers and examples of good electronic systems design.

Hambley, A.R., 2000, Electronics, 2 nd ed., Prentice Hall, ISBN 0136919820 Boylestad, R.A. & Nashelsky, 2008, , Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10 th ed., Prentice Hall, ISBN 0135026490 Storey, N., 2009, Electronics: A Systems Approach, 4 th ed., Prentice Hall, ISBN 0273719181 Williams, T., 2006, EMC for Product Designers, 3 rd ed., Newnes, ISBN 0750681705 Brooks, D., 2003, Signal Integrity Issues and Printed Circuit Board Design, Prentice Hall, ISBN 013141884X Bogatin, E., 2003, Signal Integrity Simplified, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0130669466

### Transferrable Skills

D1 Specialist knowledge and application. D2 Critical thinking and problem solving. D3 Critical analysis. D4 Communication skills, written, oral and listening. D5 Numeracy. D6 Effective Information retrieval and research skills. D7 Computer literacy. D8 Self confidence, self discipline & self reliance (independent working). D9 Awareness of strengths and weaknesses. D10 Creativity, innovation & independent thinking. professional development. D13 Reliability, integrity, honesty and ethical awareness D15 Ability to prioritise tasks and time management (organising and planning work). D16 Interpersonal skills, team working and leadership. D17 Presentation skills. D18 Commercial awareness

### Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Assessment (PT) 20.00
Tutorials (FT) 12.00
Practicals (FT) 24.00
Lectures (FT) 24.00
Independent Learning (FT) 120.00
Assessment (FT) 20.00
Tutorials (PT) 12.00
Lectures (PT) 24.00
Practicals (PT) 18.00
Independent Learning (PT) 126.00

### Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam (Exams Office) 3.00 70.00 35% Exam - examinations office
Coursework 1 0.00 15.00 35% Design Test and Performance Evaluation
Coursework 2 0.00 15.00 35% Coursework Report on Electronic Circuit