SHE Level 5
SCQF Credit Points 15.00
ECTS Credit Points 7.50
Module Code MMN225824
Module Leader n/a
School School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment
Subject GCU London
  • A (September start)
  • B (January start)
  • C (May start)

Summary of Content

The declining credibility of deterrence. The limits of coercive diplomacy. Reconciliation of security interests, development policy and democratic ideals. Diplomacy in post conflict situations. Interaction between foreign and defence policy. Public diplomacy for the Armed Forces and counter-insurgency programmes for diplomats. Preparation of teams to address reconstruction and stability. "Reservist" agronomists, including city planners, lawyers, engineers, police advisers, health workers etc. The alternatives to the use/threat of force in diplomatic contexts, the above to feed into the framework of the 'paradigm of influence' in international diplomacy, thus enhancing the students' understanding of the different cultural contexts in which defence diplomacy is designed to make an impact.


Relevant areas of examination to include: 1. National perspectives of Defence Diplomacy with the view of drawing comparisons between states and regions a. The United Kingdom b. Canada (diplomacy, defence, development) c. The United States d. China and the emerging role of Japan e. Drawbacks and strengths of national defence diplomacy initiatives 2. Regional perspectives of and experiences with defence diplomacy a. Africa b. ASEAN c. CIS d. The European Union 3. Multilateral experiments with defence diplomacy a. NATO PfP b. Med Dialogue c. OSCE d. Related strengths and weakness of multilateral initiatives e. Defence, Intervention, Conflict Resolution: the cycle of conflict versus confidence building defence f. Violent non-state actors, ISIS and international terrorism g. Cultures of Peace, Defensive Cultures: why states arm, and how Defence Diplomacy can be used as a confidence building measure

Learning Outcomes

On successfull completion of the module the students should be able to:-1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of Defence Diplomacy as an emerging paradigm in the conduct of international relations and its role as an effective tool to attain political influence without resorting to the threat or use of violence. (CW01)2. Examine the tools associated with Defence Diplomacy and the ways in which these tools can be applied in order to attain influence by contributing to prevention. (CW01)3. Critically appraise strategies to meet the new constellation of threats in the transformed international security environment as well as management of asymmetrical relationships and conflicts including in the context of disarmament and non-proliferation. (CW01)

Teaching / Learning Strategy

The teaching and learning strategy includes the use of a variety of techniques including guided independent study, lectures, and seminars conducted by academic staff to develop efficient and effective understanding of Defence Diplomacy and Civil Military Relationship. The module delivery will on occasion be facilitated by guest speakers from the field to establish practical understanding of academic topics/issues as the aim is to bridge the gap between theory and practice. There will also be a simulation exercise. Extent and quality of a student's participation in this exercise will form the evaluation.

Indicative Reading

Due to its integrative nature, there is no core text for this module. Background reading (Indicative) b7 Bruneau, T and Matei, F. (Editors) (2013) The Routledge Handbook of Civil-Military Relations . London, UK: Routledge Handbooks Online, Taylor & Francis Group. b7 Buzan, B; Waever, O.; & de Wilde, Jaap (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis . Covent Garden, London UK: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. Cooper, A.F.; Heine, J.; & Thakur, R. (eds.) 2013 The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. b7 Cottey, A. & Forster, A. (2004 ) Reshaping Defence Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance. London: Oxford University Press. b7 Huntington, S.P. (1981) The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. b7 Te4nzler, D & Carius, Alexander (eds.), 2012 Climate Diplomacy in Perspective: From Early Warning to Early Action. Berlin: BWV | Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag. Online b7 Abedi, S. (2018) The Role of Knowledge in National Power from a Geostrategic Perspective [Accessed 21/09/2018] <> b7 Dorsey, J. (2019) The rise of Eurasia: Geopolitical advantages and historic pitfalls [ Accessed 11/02/19] Available from <> b7 France Diplomatie (2018) Speech by President Emmanuel Macron - Ambassadors' Conference 2018 [Accessed 21/09/2018] Available from network/events/ambassadors-week/ambassadors-week-edition-2018/article/speech-by-president-emmanuel- macron-ambassadors-conference-2018 b7 Sanyal, J. (2018) Building strategic security: defence diplomacy and the role of army [Accessed 21/09/2018] Available from <> b7 UN Security Council (2018) Two-State Solution in Jeopardy amid Escalating Violence, Settlement- Building, Special Coordinator for Middle East Warns Security Council [Accessed 21/09/2018] Available from <> b7 Wermenbol, G. (2018) For Qatar, Hamas and Israel, Middle East Peace Plan Requires Quiet, Subdued Diplomacy [Accessed 21/09/2018] Available from <> b7 Williamson, G. (2019) Defence in Global Britain (UK Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson's speech at the Royal United Services Institute [RUSI] outlining the future direction of the UK Armed Forces) [ Accessed 11/02/19] Available from <> nations-expectations-vs-reality/>

Transferrable Skills

-360b7 Communication and presentation skills b7 Problem solving b7 Critical thinking and evaluation b7 Information retrieval Data analysis b7 Data interpretation b7 Teamwork b7 Peer learning b7 Interpersonal skills b7 Negotiation b7 Written and oral communication skills b7 Independent learning and self-management b7 Ethical conduct b7 Time management b7 Reflective learning

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Assessment (FT) 40.00
Independent Learning (FT) 72.00
Lectures (FT) 32.00
Tutorials (FT) 2.00
Seminars (FT) 4.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Course Work 01 n/a 100.00 n/a Simulation - Individually or in teams students will role play defence diplomacy scenario.