CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

SHE Level 5
SCQF Credit Points 15.00
ECTS Credit Points 7.50
Module Code MMK423247
Module Leader Rohinton Emmanuel
School School of Computing, Engineering and Built Environment
Subject Civil Engineering and Environmental Management
Trimester
  • C (May start)

Summary of Content

This module provides students with a scientific understanding of climate and climate change in cities and a critical understanding of options to mitigate/adapt to changing climate in urban areas. The module is organized in four parts. The first part focuses on basic meteorology with elements of atmospheric thermodynamics, scales and type of flow circulations, theoretical and applied aspects of atmospheric physics and dynamics. The second part will focus on climate, climate prediction and observation of atmospheric processes and climate change highlighting fluid dynamics aspects of the urban environment. The third part provides and understanding and critical appraisal of the major factors influencing air, water and climate consequences of urban growth and their population health implications. Finally, the module provides a critical overview of mitigatory and adaptive options available at urban levels to live with/manage climate change.

Syllabus

-360b7 Meteorology and climate -360 o History of Earth's climate o Climate forcing factors o Atmospheric dynamics /thermodynamics -360b7 Climate prediction -360 o Phenomenon of different type of boundary layers o Extreme events: definitions and methods of identification o Climate models and modelling techniques o Model interpretation -360b7 Urban climate -360 o Consequences of climate change in urban environment - Air quality, flooding, overhating o Urban heat islands - causes and consequences o Urban air pollution and quality, causes and effects of air pollutants o Impact, vulnerability and adaptation in urban areas -360b7 Mitigation and/or adaptation at urban scale -360 o Flooding, flood prevention, sustainable urban drainage o Urban heat island mitigation o Living with climate change in cities o Quantitative modelling techniques at urban scale

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module students should be able to:1. Demonstrate awareness and understanding of atmospheric physical, thermodynamics, dynamic processes and evolving weather in a climatic context.2. Critically appraise the coupling of urban environment to meteorological-climate, atmospheric stability.3. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of model outputs and interpretation.4. Identify and critically evaluate the nature, causes and implications of extreme events.5. Identify and critically evaluate the effects of climate change in urban environments.6. Demonstrate technical ability in analytical methods in the evaluation of climate change mitigation/adaptation strategies.

Teaching / Learning Strategy

The module, developed under the auspices of the RESUCE Project, in conjunction with the University of Salento (UdS), Italy, a partner in the Project. The delivery of this module will be through lectures, seminars and case studies, as well as guest lectures by UdS staff. Delivery of this module will take several forms, including lectures, seminars and case studies. Students will develop the practical skills through tutorial exercises, case studies, in-class presentations and reports.

Indicative Reading

-284 Example books: Arya SP, 1998. Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion , 1 st Edition, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195073983 Barrat R, 2001. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling, 1 st Edition, Earthscan Publications, ISBN 1853836427 Barry R, Chorley R. 2003 . Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Routledge; 8 th ed., ISBN-10: 0415271711 Dessler AE, 2012. Introduction to Modern Climate Change , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 978-1-107-00189-3 Emmanuel R. 2005. An Urban Approach to Climate Sensitive Buildings , London: E&FN Spon Press, ISBN: 978-0415334105 Erell E, Pearlmutter D. 2011. Urban Microclimates: Designing the Spaces Between Buildings , Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, ISBN: 978-1844074679 Holton JR. 2012. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology . 5 th edition, ISBN-13: 978-0123848666 Marzluff <http://link.springer.com/search?facet-author=%22John+M.+Marzluff%22> JM, et al., (eds.), 2008. Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature , New York: Springer, ISBN: 978-0-387-73411-8 Oke TR, 1988. Boundary Layer Climates , 2 nd ed., Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, ISBN: 978-0415043199 -284 Example Journals: Alexandria, E; Jones, P, 2008. Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates, BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT , 43, 4, pp. 480-493, DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.055 Buccolieri R, Sandberg M, Di Sabatino S. 2010. City breathability and its link to pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries, Atmospheric Environment , 44, pp. 1894-1903 Chen F; et al., 2011. The integrated WRF/urban modelling system: development, evaluation, and applications to urban environmental problems, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY , 31, 2, pp. 273-288, DOI: 10.1002/joc.2158 Gill, SE; Handley, JF; Ennos, AR; Pauleit, S; Theuray, N; Lindley, SJ, 2008. Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: A template for landscape planning, LANDSCAPE AND URBAN PLANNING , 87, 3, pp. 210-222, DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.06.008 Kalnay E, Cai M, 2003. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate, NATURE , 423, 6939, pp. 528-531, DOI: 10.1038/nature01675 Lin, TP; Matzarakis, A; Hwang, RL, 2010. Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort, BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENT , 45, 1, pp. 213-221, DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.06.002 Luber, G; McGeehin, M, 2008. Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE , 35, 5, pp. 429-435, DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.021 McCarthy, MP; Best, MJ; Betts, RA, 2010. Climate change in cities due to global warming and urban effects, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS , 37, L09705, DOI: 10.1029/2010GL042845 Rowe DB, 2011. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION , 159, 2110, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.10.029 Santamouris, M; Synnefa, A; Karlessi, T, 2011. Using advanced cool materials in the urban built environment to mitigate heat islands and improve thermal comfort conditions, SOLAR ENERGY , 85, 12, pp. 3085-3102, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2010.12.023 Stewart ID, 2011. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, 31, 2, pp. 200-217, DOI: 10.1002/joc.2141

Transferrable Skills

-360b7 Communicating effectively in appropriate formats, including among peers and with external agencies b7 Applying appropriate analytical skills (including mathematical methods); b7 Using effectively a wide range of IT tools, including general software and specialist packages b7 Demonstrating a professional approach to time-management

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Tutorials (FT) 12.00
Independent Learning (FT) 84.00
Seminars (FT) 12.00
Assessment (FT) 18.00
Lectures (FT) 24.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam (Dept) 01 2.00 40.00 45% Internal exam of 2 hours.
Course Work 01 n/a 60.00 45% Individual report on an urban climate change related issue, with own sourced data.