PATHOPHYSIOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS OF DIABETES

SHE Level 5
SCQF Credit Points 15.00
ECTS Credit Points 7.50
Module Code MMC125885
Module Leader n/a
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Trimester
  • A (September start)

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

Standard programme entry requirements

Summary of Content

This module will extend the student's knowledge of normal physiology relevant to diabetes. Included will be Type 1, Type 2, Gestational Diabetes, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young. This module will provide an in depth knowledge and understanding of the macrovascular complications and selected microvascular complications of this disease along with the scientific basis for diagnosis, the genetic basis of the disease, acute diabetic emergencies and the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of diabetes

Syllabus

Genetic basis of Diabetes Obesity: Adipocytes and adipokines, incretin hormones and central control of satiety, drug therapies Macrovascular complications: Mechanisms of vascular damage, hypertension, myocardial infarct mechanisms and therapeutics. Stroke - types and treatments and functional consequences. Peripheral vascular disease; consequences and therapies. Microvascular complications: Polyol pathways and advanced glycosylation end products. Neuropathy; autonomic, sensory and motor. Existing and future therapies. Neuropathic pain. Pathophysiology and therapeutics. Nephropathy, hyperfiltration, reduced GFR, end-stage renal failure. Detection of microalbuminurea, proteinurea albumin/creatinine ratio. Relationship between nephropathy and cardiovascular pathologies. Drug treatment of nephropathy. Dialysis. Transplantation. Acute diabetic emergencies. Signs, symptoms, mechanisms and therapies of: hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, hyperosmotic coma

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the module the students should be able to :1. Identify and discuss critically the hormonal control of appetite and the progression to obesity2. Demonstrate an advanced understanding of the pharmacological treatment of obesity and the experimental basis of research into future therapies.3. Understand and assess the mechanisms of cardiovascular, nerve and renal damage in diabetes4. Critically analyse and evaluate the scientific basis of the pharmacological strategies with regard to these systems5. Demonstrate knowledge of the genetic basis of diabetes and understand its relevance to diagnosis and management.6. Have in depth knowledge of the principles and practices of xeno-transplantation and allo-transplantation.7. Demonstrate an advanced knowledge and understanding of acute diabetic emergencies

Teaching / Learning Strategy

Methods used will include lectures, student centred learning, tutorials and data analysis exercises

Indicative Reading

Essential: Rang & Dale's Pharmacology, 8 th edition 2015. Churchill Livingstone Recommended: Belchetz, P. and Hammond, P. (2003) Mosby's Color Atlas and Text of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Edinburgh, Mosby Nadeau et al: Medical Neuroscience, Updated edition Saunders (2005) McLannahan & Clifton (2008) Challenging Obesity: The Science behind the Issues. Oxford Press Ajetunmobi ((2002), Making Sense of Critical Appraisal. Hodder Arnold Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, (2013) 6th Edition Edited by Stephen McMahon, PhD & Martin Koltzenburg, MD FRCP E-sources: <http://www.ipita.org/> <http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0908-665X&site=1> Brownlee (2005). The Pathobiology of Diabetic Complications. A Unifying Mechanism. Disclosures Diabetes. 54(6):1615-1625 <http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/107/9/1058.full> <http://www.endotext.org/obesity/obesity8/obesity8.htm> Mulla CM , Middelbeek RJW , Patti ME (2017) Mechanisms of weight loss and improved metabolism following bariatric surgery. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Sep 3. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13409. [Epub ahead of print] Srivastava A1, Srivastava N2, Mittal B. (2016). Genetics of obesity. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2016 Oct;31(4):361-71 Lutz TA, Asarian L. (2017). Pharmacotherapy for Weight Loss. In: Harris RBS, editor. Appetite and Food Intake: Central Control. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2017. Chapter 13. Chilelli NC, Burlina S, Lapolla A. (2013). AGEs, rather than hyperglycemia, are responsible for microvascular complications in diabetes: a "glycoxidation-centric" point of view. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;23(10):913-9 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2010) Guideline 116 Management of Diabetes. Edinburgh, Royal College of Physicians. Available on http://www.sign.ac.uk. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2017) Guideline 149. Risk Estimation and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease . Individual lecturers may give further directed reading.

Transferrable Skills

The student's personal transferable skills will be extended in the following areas: - Critical thinking and problem solving - Communication (oral and written) - Information retrieval from library and electronic sources - Review and critical analysis of published data - Independent study skills

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Lectures (FT) 22.00
Assessment (FT) 18.00
Directed Learning 12.00
Tutorials (FT) 12.00
Independent Learning (FT) 86.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam (Exams Office) 3.00 50.00 45% Written Exam
Coursework 1 n/a 50.00 45% Critical Appraisal