PROFESSIONAL REASONING & DECISION MAKING WITHIN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

SHE Level 3
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code M3B926073
Module Leader Sandra Robertson
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Occupational Therapy
Trimester
  • B (January start)

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

Normally successful completion of Level 2 of the BSc (Hons) Occupational Therapy Programme or equivalent

Summary of Content

This module will provide learners with a variety of learning experiences in order to develop decision-making skills and understand professional responsibilities in line with the expectations of the Royal College of Occupational Therapists and the Health and Care Professions Council's standards. This will enable learners to develop the professional reasoning and decision making skills required in order to develop into future practitioners who can work within the legal and ethical boundaries of the profession. The module will support learners to engage with frameworks for professional reasoning, ethical theories and concepts of ethical practice such as professional boundaries, scope of practice, autonomy, consent, confidentiality and human rights. Ultimately, this module will synthesise the knowledge and skills the leaners have acquired to date and combine this with the values, behaviours and knowledge to be able to recognise ethical issues and dilemmas, decide on an ethical course of action and justify professional decisions within the context of occupational therapy practice.

Syllabus

-360a7 Ethical theories that underpin ethical practice in health and social care a7 Exploration of a range of contemporary frameworks for professional reasoning a7 Review of RCOT/ HCOPC professional standards (RCOT Code of ethics [2015] and HCPC Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics [2016] and HCPC Standards of proficiency for Occupational Therapy [2013]) a7 Components and process of decision-making a7 Critical thinking and decision-making within occupational therapy practice a7 Professional reasoning within a reflective practice context a7 Engagement in discussion of ethical and safe practice concepts such as professional relationships/ boundaries, scope and limits of practice, duty of care, consent, confidentiality, autonomy and human rights a7 Review of the impact of culture, attitudes and values on personal and professional development including unconscious bias a7 Ethical dilemmas and critical incidents in health, social care and third sector practice relevant to occupational therapy a7 Discussion on aspects of risk and how this can be enabling and prohibitive

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:Learning outcomes have been mapped to HCPC Standards of Proficiency (2013) in brackets.1. Analyse and evaluate ethical and safe practice as determined by most current code of ethics and performance (RCOT) and standards of conduct, performance and ethics (HCPC) and standards of proficiency - occupational therapy (HCPC) alongside other relevant codes of ethics and performance which underpin practice (section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15)2. Identify and analyse components of critical thinking and decision making within the therapeutic process (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 8.6, 11.1, 11.2, 13.10, 14.4, 14.6, 14.8, 14.9, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.24)3. Analyse and evaluate the relationship between reflective practice and professional reasoning (1, 1,1, 1.2, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.10, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.2, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12, 12.1, 12.3, 12.5 12.6, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.12, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14. 11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.24, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5)4. Identify and analyse ethical theories to inform ethical decision making in occupational therapy practice (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6)5. Analyse and evaluate specific ethical principles which facilitate professional reasoning in the decision making process (1, 1,1, 1.2, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 6, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 8.5, 8.10, 9.1, 9.3, 9.6, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13. 11,13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14. 11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.8, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.24, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5)6. Develop an understanding of the scope and limits of occupational therapy practice (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3) 7. Develop skills in making informed, reasonable and justified decisions within therapeutic practice (1, 1,1, 1.2, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3,5.4, 6, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.10, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13. 11,13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.8, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.24, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5)

Teaching / Learning Strategy

Real life experiences, web-based materials and class-based learning opportunities are used to facilitate learners' engagement with module materials and actively inform knowledge and skill development. Learning will be facilitated using a blend of methods and lectures will be used to introduce key concepts and stimulate critical thinking and discussion. Seminars will compliment lectures and provide the opportunity for learners to consolidate their learning and engage in a range of interactive activities which will enable learners to explore theories and concepts within real world case scenarios. The virtual learning environment via GCU learn will be used to facilitate and support independent learning and will provide a range of additional material and resources such as videos, links to websites, reports or scanned book chapters in order to engage learners. Formative activities will be included in the module and a range of activities will be used to help learners develop their understanding of the module content and how it aligns with the assessment strategy. The module will have two coursework components in the form of a group presentation and an essay to engage learners in discussion regarding ethical theories/professional frameworks and standards. The assessments will enable learners to demonstrate professional reasoning and an ability to make an informed, evidenced and justified professional decisions.

Indicative Reading

BEAUCHAMP, T.L and CHILDRESS, J. 2013. Principles of Biomedical Ethics 7 th edit. Oxford University, Oxford BUSHBY, K. et al, 2015. Ethical Tension in Occupational Therapy. British Journal of Occupational Therapy [online] 78(4) pp. 212-221 [viewed 13 December 2015] Available from: <http://bjo.sagepub.com.gcu.idm.oclc.org/content/78/4.toc>bjo.sagepub.com.gcu.idm.oclc.org/content/78/4.toc <http://bjo.sagepub.com.gcu.idm.oclc.org/content/78/4.toc> COLLEGE OF OCCUAPTIONAL THERAPY 2015. Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct RCOT London CORNING, H. 2005. Ethical issues facing Healthcare Professionals [online] RC Educational Consulting Services, Riverside, CA [viewed 05 January 2016] Available from: <http://www.rcecs.com/MyCE/PDFDocs/course/V7050.pdf> DELANY, C. & GALVIN, J., 2014. Ethics and shared decision-making in paediatric occupational therapy practice. Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 17 (5), pp347-354. DELULIIS, E., 2017. Professionalism Across Occupational Therapy Practice. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Inc. DIGE, M. 2009. Occupational therapy, professional development, and ethics. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 16 (2), pp.88-98. DUNCAN, P. 2010. Values, ethics and health care. London: Sage Publications Ltd. HANCOCK, J. 2018. 'Professional ethics, regulation and fitness to practice'. In: CLOUSTON, T.J., WESTCOTT, L. & WHITCOMBE, S.W. eds. Transition to practice: Essential concepts for health and social care professions. Keswick: M & K Publishing. pp.3-16. HEALTH AND CARE PROFESSIONS COUNCIL 2013. Occupational Therapy Standards of Proficiency HCPC England HEALTH AND CARE PROFESSIONS COUNCIL 2016. Code of Conduct, Performance and Ethics England HIGGS, J. et al 2018. Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions Elsevier America JASPER M., ROSSER, M. & MOONEY, G. 2013. Professional Development, Reflection and Decision-Making , [online] 2 nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell Chichester [viewed 21 January 2016] Available from: <https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9781118303269> JONGH, J.C. BRANDT. L. WEGNER L. 2019 Occupational therapy students perspectives of ethics in two contires: South Africa and the United States of America International Journal of Health Sciences 13(4) https://ijhs.org.sa/index.php/journal/article/view/376 KINSELLA, E.A., PHELAN, S.K., PARK LALA, A. & MOM, V., 2015. An investigation of students' perceptions of ethical practice: engaging a reflective dialogue about ethics education in the health professions. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 20 (3), pp.781-801. MATTINGLY, C. & FLEMING, M.H. 1994. Clinical Reasoning: Forms of Inquiry in a Therapeutic Practice. A Davis Philadelphia Publishers MORRISON, E.E. & FURLONG, B., 2019. Health Care Ethics. 4 th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Barlett Learning. PHANG, K. (ed), 2014. 7 Key Ethical Principles of Nursing [online] Nursing Community Journal [Accessed 05/01/16] Available from: <http://onlinenursing.wilkes.edu/key-ethical-principles-of-nursing/> PURTILO, R. DOHERTY, R. 2016. Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions Elsevier ROYAL COLLEGE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY. 2017. Embracing Risk Enabling Choice London ROYAL COLLEGE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS, 2018. Keeping records: Guidance for Occupational Therapists . 4 th ed. London: Royal College of Occupational Therapists. SCHELL, B. SCHELL, J.W. 2017. Clinical and Professional Reasoning in Occupational Therapy Wolters Kluwer SEEDHOUSE, D. 2009; Ethics: The Heart of Health Care ; John Wiley and Sons (Ebook) STOLT, M., LEINO-KILPI, H., RUOKONEN, M., REPO, H. & SUHONEN, R., 2018. Ethics interventions for healthcare professionals and students: A systematic review. Nursing Ethics. 25 (2), pp.138-152. STRONG, G., 2018. 'Professionalism: A journey from novice to expert practitioner. In: CLOUSTON, T.J., WESTCOTT, L. & WHITCOMBE, S.W. eds. Transition to practice: Essential concepts for health and social care professionals. Keswick: M & K Publishing. pp.31-44. THOMAS, Y. SEEDHOUSE, D. PEUTHERER, V. LOUGHLIN, M. 2019. An empirical investigation into the role of values in occupational therapy decision-making <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0308022619829722> British Journal of Occupational Therapy 82(6) p357-366 TITTERTON, M. 2005. Risk and risk taking in health and social welfare , London: Jessica Kingsley. Available at:https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/gcal/reader.action?docID=290663&ppg=5 VANDERKAAY, S. JUNG, B. LETTS, L. 2019 Continuing competency in ethical decision making: An interpretive description of Occupational therapists' perspectives <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0008417419833842> Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 86(3) p209-219 WAYNE, K., 2019. How Can Ethics Support Innovative Health Care for an Aging population? Ethics and Behavior. 29 (3), pp.227-253.

Transferrable Skills

-360a7 Group working skills a7 Ability to share ideas and opinions a7 Ability to source information using a variety of sources a7 Increased ability to make decision with complexities of health and social care practice a7 Increase ability to integrate personal values with professional values and behaviour a7 Ability to use evidence to inform practice reasoning and decision making a7 Ability to understand and work within complexities of professional relationships within a workplace -360

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Seminars (FT) 24.00
Assessment (FT) 20.00
Lectures (FT) 12.00
Independent Learning (FT) 144.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Course Work 01 n/a 50.00 35% Group Presentation - 15 minutes
Course Work 02 n/a 50.00 35% Essay - 2000 words