MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR REGULATION

SHE Level 2
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code M2C723491
Module Leader Linda Jones
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Trimester
  • A (September start)

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

M1C726395 Biological Chemistry (SCQF 7) or equivalent

Summary of Content

This module will build upon molecular biology aspects to include genome science: outlining how genome projects are conducted and the main features that have emerged from sequencing model organisms. Further study will focus on gene expression and its control in eukaryotes. It will provide an introduction to protein modification and signal transduction mechanisms. It will consider the essential biochemical pathways, regulation, and integration of metabolism which underpins physiology and pathophysiology.

Syllabus

REGULATION OF CELLULAR PROCESSES Organisation of Genomes -360b7 'Omics technologies: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics; mention metabolomics to link 'omics together. -360b7 Genome sequencing projects: genome mapping and sequencing strategy; mapping epigenetic sites. b7 General aspects of genome organisation in model organisms (e.g. a bacteria, a plant, C elegans, D melanogaster, H sapiens). The human genome and personalized medicine. b7 Bioinformatics and exploiting genomic resources. Regulation of Gene Expression -360b7 Gene transcription and its regulation in eukaryotes including the features of the polymerases, transcription factors b7 Processing of primary transcripts, including RNA processing and non-coding RNA and mRNA stability b7 Mechanism of modification of chromatin structure in regulating gene expression including acetylation, methylation b7 An introduction to epigenetics. Cellular Signalling -360b7 Study the mechanisms whereby the availability & activity of proteins and enzymes can be regulated. Relate this to signal transduction across the cell membrane -360b7 Regulation of availability by proteases; zymogens, proproteins and prohormones. b7 Regulation by control proteins, serpins, TIMPS. b7 Protein degradation; ubiquitin and the proteosome. b7 Regulation by reversible covalent modification of proteins. b7 Protein kinases and phosphatases. protein kinase cascades. -360b7 Signal transduction: G protein coupled receptors, different second messengers & the role of Calmodulin in calcium signaling PATHWAYS AND METABOLISM Introduction to metabolism -360b7 Consider the role and function of macronutrients and micronutrients in human metabolism, body fuel reserves, anabolic and catabolic pathways. -360b7 Introduction to general concepts of inborn errors of metabolism. Carbohydrate Metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation -360b7 Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ATP generation, chemiosmotic hypothesis, ATP synthetase complex, roles of ATP, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway -360b7 Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism Lipid Metabolism -360b7 Lipoproteins, triacylglycerol synthesis and degradation, fatty acid synthesis, oxidation and degradation, roles of cholesterol, steroids, and ketones -360b7 Inborn errors of lipid metabolism. Protein Metabolism Transamination and deamination reactions, outline of amino acid synthesis and metabolism, urea cycle and nitrogen balance. Inborn errors of protein metabolism. Integration and adaptations of Metabolism key junctions of metabolic pathways, tissue distribution of metabolic pathways. Adaptations to metabolism which occur in the fed and fasted state, starvation, exercise and sport.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module the student should be able to:1. Describe aspects of genomes and the application of genome science (assessed in CW1)2. Demonstrate an understanding of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes (assessed in CW1)3. Explain the mechanisms by which proteins are post-translationally modified and degraded (assessed in CW1)4. Define the core concepts in signal transduction (assessed in CW1)5. Describe the mechanisms involved in the control of cellular metabolism, recognising the integrated nature of human metabolism and its associated disorders (assessed in EX1)

Teaching / Learning Strategy

The core material of the module will be delivered as formal lectures with a selected topic delivered as an online student centred learning package. The accompanying tutorial programme will support and extend understanding of the lecture material through a combination of individual work, small group exercises and interactive sessions consisting of formative assessment of student learning .

Indicative Reading

Harvey R A and Ferrier D R (2017) Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry 6th Edition. Lippincott, Williams and Watkins, Philadelphia Tymoczko J, Berg J M, Gatto G J and Stryer L. 2019 Biochemistry: A short Course 4 th Edition. MacMillan

Transferrable Skills

Students will develop personal transferrable skills in oral communication through group working and tutorial discussions. They will develop the ability to become independent learners by accessing the online SCL package on selected topic areas. Life skills including independent and team working, organisational skills and time management will be further developed and built on from previous years.

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Independent Learning (FT) 139.00
Lectures (FT) 36.00
Tutorials (FT) 5.00
Assessment (FT) 20.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Course Work 01 1.50 50.00 35% class test
Exam 01 1.50 50.00 35% unseen exam