CELLS & BIOMOLECULES

SHE Level 1
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code M1C726455
Module Leader Karen Keith
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Trimester
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Summary of Content

The module delivers a core programme of biochemistry, cell biology and genetics broken down into four packages: The Central Dogma, covering the synthesis, structure and function of DNA, RNA and proteins The Cell, covering prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure Genetics and Inheritance, covering mitosis and meiosis as well as models of inheritance Enzymes, covering thermodynamics and kinetics, mechanisms of action and allosteric enzymes

Syllabus

-4 Block 1 Cell Structure and The Central Dogma 16 hours -359-4 Introduction 2 hours ? Water, carbon and the building blocks of macromolecules The Cell 4 hours ? The role of microscopy in determining cell structure. Cell theory. ? Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes- Organelles common to all cell types ? Eukaryotic organelles. Endomembrane system. Function and origin of organelles ? The structure of lipids, phospholipids, carbohydrates, glycoproteins and lipoproteins Membranes and transport 5 hours ? Membrane structure models ? Membrane as a barrier. ? Transport across the membrane: diffusion and facilitated transport. Osmosis Na/K pump. Proton pump bulk transport ? Cell fibres and the cytoskeleton. Centromere, centrioles. ? Extracellular structures and cell movement cilia and flagella ? Cell:cell interactions Tight and Gap junctions Desmosomes. Anchoring junctions Prokaryotes and viruses 2 hours ? Prokaryotic Cell structure: Bacterial Cell wall. Target for drugs ? Introduction to viruses.: Virus genomes, classification and diversity Introduction to nucleic acids 3 hours ? Structure synthesis and replication of DNA and RNA -4 Block 2 12 hours Protein Synthesis and Molecular Biology 6 hours -359-4? The genetic code and protein synthesis Preparation & analysis of DNA ? DNA sequencing (all methods including Next Generation) ? Structure of Genes: Eukaryotes ? RNA stability ? Preparation & analysis of RNA -359-4 Protein structure and function 6 hours -359-4? Functional diversity, classes of proteins. ? Amino acids: structures and properties, functional groups, acidic, basic, polar, hydrophobic ? What role does the amino acid sequence play in protein structure? ? The peptide bond, primary structure of proteins. ? What are the elements of secondary structure in proteins, and how are they formed? ? How do polypeptides fold into three-dimensional protein structures? ? Motifs, domains and the modular nature of proteins ? How do protein subunits interact at the quaternary level of protein structure? ? Relationship between structure and function with examples. ? Protein purification and characterisation ? Amino acids: structures and properties, functional groups, acidic, basic, polar, hydrophobic ? What role does the amino acid sequence play in protein structure? ? The peptide bond, primary structure of proteins. ? What are the elements of secondary structure in proteins, and how are they formed? ? How do polypeptides fold into three-dimensional protein structures? ? Motifs, domains and the modular nature of proteins ? How do protein subunits interact at the quaternary level of protein structure? ? Relationship between structure and function with examples. ? Protein purification and characterisation -4 Block 3 14 hours Enzymes: 8 hours -359-4? Understand that enzymes are proteins which catalyse metabolic reactions ? Identify the major groups of enzymes ? The effects of temperature, pH, enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reactions ? Can the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction be defined in a mathematical way? ? What equations define the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions? ? How can enzymes be so specific? What are the magnitudes of enzyme-induced rate accelerations? ? What role does transition-state stabilization play in enzyme catalysis? ? Types of catalysis: example of an enzyme mechanism ? Describe the effects of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on the rate of enzyme activity ? How can enzymes control the rate of biochemical pathways? ? What are the models of allosterism? ? Aspartate carbamoylase as an example of an allosteric enzyme -4 Genetics and inheritance: 6 hours -359-4

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module the student should be able to:1. Name the key molecules and pathways that constitute the central dogma including the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein2. Define the basis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structure including the nature of cell membranes, cellular organelles and transport of molecules across membranes3. Recognise the basis of genetic inheritance4. Describe the nature and function of enzymes their substrates, modulators and inhibitors

Teaching / Learning Strategy

Material will be delivered by lectures with an online review support system based on review questions and quizzes. Additional material will be delivered in biweekly interactive seminars

Indicative Reading

-4 Cells, Molecules and Metabolism, GCU Department of Life Sciences, Wiley Custom Text Book Molecular Biology of the Cell 6th Edition, Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Morgan, Raff, Roberts and Walter (2015) Garland Science.

Transferrable Skills

To organise and integrate information with taught and practical modules elsewhere in the bioscience programmes

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Seminars (FT) 10.00
Lectures (FT) 42.00
Assessment (FT) 18.00
Independent Learning (FT) 130.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam 02 2.00 50.00 35% Unseen written exam
Exam 01 2.00 50.00 35% Unseen written exam