SHE Level 1
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code M1B521882
Module Leader Sven Jonuscheit
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Vision Sciences
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Summary of Content

This module takes an evidence-based approach to the core knowledge in ophthalmic dispensing required by an Optometrist, with the level of practical experience necessary to enter related clinical and more specialised modules in these disciplines. The module will cover spectacle frames and lenses and their manufacture, their measurement, adjustment and repair as well as the optical properties of all types of lenses.


-108 Spectacle frame types: materials; selection (basic); children, adults, unusual facial characteristics; construction; recognition of materials; materials properties and adjustment; tools and their use; raw materials for frames and lenses; manufacturing techniques for frames and lenses; frame manipulation and repair Frame measurement; facial measurement for frame construction; facial measurement for lens ordering; modern alternatives to facial measurement; moulding and modelling (lecture only); writing prescriptions; BS notation; simple transposition; common errors in practice Lenses; single vision; lenticulars; bifocals; trifocals; varifocals; others; why different types are needed; lens forms; definitions including commonly used obsolete ones; ordering; focimetry; other measurements; verification; uncut diameter: (ruler and template methods); centration Lens measure; use; refractive index determination Ophthalmic prisms; why they are needed (basic); Prentice rule; decentration; differential and summed prism; prism difference formula; prism splitting; rotary prisms (Risley, Stevens); distance/ near prism control Astigmatic surfaces; toric transposition; aspherical and atoroidal surfaces Sphero-cylindrical lenses; nominal and compensated forms Edge and centre thickness; spherical, astigmatic and prismatic lenses Obliquely crossed cylinders; Stokes construction Near vision effectivity; spectacle magnification; iseikonic lenses and their problems Spectacle lens materials; optical and mechanical requirements; properties; availability; curve variation factor and its errors; Abbe number (basic) Manufacturing methods and tooling Tints and coatings; terminology and definitions; types; properties; purposes; manufacturing methods; lens reflections and sources; AR and MAR coatings; path length and amplitude conditions; obliquity and wavelength dependence; hydrophobic and oleophobic coatings; scratch resistance Aberrations; monochromatic and chromatic; purpose of Seidel and Zernicke polynomials and their use; explanation; control; "best form"- BS definition and common beliefs; visual interpretation of spectacle aberrations Spectacle lens tolerances (BS, EN and ISO) Labs/tutorials: -360b7 prisms b7 astigmatism b7 edging, field of view b7 aberrations b7 ophthalmic lenses, general b7 single vision lenses b7 bifocals, varifocals b7 prisms in ophthalmic lenses b7 tints and coats b7 basic manufacturing methods b7 background to British and international standards b7 Spectacle frames and materials b7 repair and adjustment Clinical aspects of eye protection

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module students should be able to:1. Demonstrate communication skills.2. Understand the principles and reasons for the supply of the majority of spectacles common in practice.3. Understand the basic optical principles, uses and reasons for supply of more complex spectacle appliances.4. Understand how to measure the majority of spectacles supplied in practice.5. Measure and verify of the common spectacles supplied in practice. 6. Use an evidence-based approach to the supply of optical appliances

Teaching / Learning Strategy

Most of the concepts involved in this module will be novel to students. It will start at the simple mechanistic level and develop into more complex areas as the parallel optical theory modules supply the underlying knowledge framework. A mixture of on-line and conventional tutorials and lectures, supported by laboratories, will be used to introduce the subjects. Students will develop communication skills and their ability to reflect on their learning experience, whilst developing practical skills in a supportive environment.

Indicative Reading

Cubbidge R (2010 et seq) Ophthalmic Lens Data, SC Hardy & Co Drew R (1990) Ophthalmic Dispensing, Butterworth Fowler C, Latham-Petre K (2001) Spectacle Lenses, Theory and Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann Griffiths, A I (2000) Practical Dispensing, 3rd Ed, ABDO Levene, J R (1977) Clinical Refractive & Visual Sciences, Butterworth Jalie M (1983) Practical Ophthalmic Lenses, Butterworth Jalie M (1972-2010) Principles of Ophthalmic Lenses, All Editions ABDO Jalie M (1998-2009) Ophthalmic Lenses and Dispensing, All Editions, Butterworth-Heinemann Brooks C F, Borish, I M (2007) System for Ophthalmic Dispensing 3rd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann Fowler C & Latham-Petrie K (2001) Spectacle lenses: theory and practice. Butterworth-Heineman Griffiths, A I (2000) Practical Dispensing 3rd ed, ABDO Harsant R (undated) A revision guide to ABDO part 1 practical examinations. ABDO Janney GD & Tunnacliffe AH (1997) Worked problems in ophthalmic lenses. ABDO Stoner E, Perkins P, Ferguson R. (2005) Optical Formulas Tutorial 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Wakefield K (2000) Bennett's Ophthalmic Prescription Work. Butterworth Heinemann Walsh G (2010 et seq). Programme specific document "Spectacles" Gilbert, P. & Gilbert, P. (2013 et seq) Ophthalmic Lenses Availability. ABDO College, Godmersham

Transferrable Skills

Social, verbal and non-verbal communication skills and interview technique; manual dexterity; critical evaluation of literature.

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Assessment (FT) 15.00
Independent Learning (FT) 107.00
Practicals (FT) 42.00
Lectures (FT) 36.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam 01 1.50 30.00 35% Multiple Choice Questions (Semester B)
Course Work 01 n/a 70.00 35% Assessed on-line submissions