HUMAN MOVEMENT: BIOMECHANICS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SHE Level 1
SCQF Credit Points 30.00
ECTS Credit Points 15.00
Module Code M1B122673
Module Leader Sivaramkumar Shanmugam
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Physiotherapy
Trimester
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Summary of Content

This module will introduce students to the principles of human movement and physical activity (encompassing exercise). Students will develop knowledge and skills in observation and analysis of posture and movements involved in Activities of Daily Living. These activities will include gait, sit to stand, reach and grasp and other functional everyday tasks. Understanding human movement hinges on a good working knowledge of Biomechanics. Principles of Biomechanics will not only be applied to human movement but also to human tissues. This knowledge and understanding will be used to underpin the principles and practice of muscle re-education and different types of muscle training (including motor relearning theory and exercise prescription) in different contexts e.g. applied to diverse age groups and environments. Students will devise individualised exercise programmes for a range of client groups. In this, attention will be focussed on the health and safety principles in exercise prescription and in the environment in which students will be working. Tissue mechanics, including tissue reaction to temperature and loading during movement and lack of movement, will be studied to underpin skills, knowledge and understanding of flexibility exercises. Superficial heating and other electrotherapy modalities that is useful for muscle re-education and flexibility exercise will be studied. The principles of aerobic training for both health and fitness will be studied and students will apply that knowledge in designing and executing a group exercise class.

Syllabus

The syllabus will cover -357b7 Basic biomechanics including force analysis, Newton's laws (inertia and momentum), mass and stability, principles of work, energy transfers and impulse b7 Tissue mechanic principles including creep, stress relaxation, hysteresis, stress strain curve, viscoelasticity b7 Observation and analysis of sitting and standing postures b7 Observation and detailed analysis of various functional tasks including lying to sitting, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit, normal walking, stair ascent and descent, various functional upper limb tasks b7 Principles of muscle training including overload and specificity b7 Principles of aerobic training for health and fitness, FITT principles, vo2 max and target heart rate b7 How to teach and lead group exercise classes safely and effectively, aerobic exercise prescription b7 Principles and techniques of muscle facilitation and re-education b7 The Construction of individualised training programmes b7 Muscle imbalance and restoration of functional activities b7 Motor relearning and skills acquisition. b7 Use of mobility aids (sticks, crutches and frames) b7 Individualised home exercise programmes b7 Flexibility exercises and specific stretching techniques (passive, active and PNF) b7 Superficial heating and neuromuscular electrical stimulation & cold? b7 Flow and hydrotherapy principles b7 Field trip to hydrotherapy pool

Learning Outcomes

1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of biomechanical principles applying to human movement including self.2. Identify and analyse posture including sitting, standing etc3. Analyse various functional tasks; including, gait, sit-to-stand and reach to grasp4. Demonstrate and explain the rationale for appropriate selection and teaching of mobility aids for various client groups across all ages5. Explain the stages of motor learning and skills acquisition and apply that to functional tasks6. Describe the effect of temperature on tissues7. Demonstrate the safe application of superficial thermal techniques8. Using appropriate principles construct an aquatic therapy session 9. Design and reason individualised progressive exercise programmes for various client groups across all ages in various settings: strengthening, flexibility, aerobic exercise for health and home exercise programmes10. Explain and execute appropriate assessment, instruction, health & safety for strengthening, flexibility, aerobic exercise for health and home exercise programmes11. Explain how human movement is affected by anatomy, biomechanics, physiology and environment factors 12. Demonstrate effective communication and team working skills while designing and executing appropriate exercise programmes13. Demonstrate the ability to measure and record appropriate data with respect to functional movement analysis and exercise prescription

Teaching / Learning Strategy

This module is aligned with Glasgow Caledonian Universities Strategy for Learning. The principle of engagement led learning is used for active participation of students in small group tutorials and practical classes. Different methods of continuous feedback based on GCU feedback principles, will be given throughout the year. This module uses a blended approach to tailor the individualised needs of each student. Most of the engagement led activities are designed to specifically develop the GCU's 21 st century graduate attributes. There is emphasis on peer teaching, learning and feedback through the year. Topic overview will be provided through podcasts and key note lectures and most sessions will be practical in nature. Weekly learning objectives and self-assessment questions will be provided in the module handbook. There will be formative assessment in both trimesters and three group presentation tasks.

Indicative Reading

Biomechanics Kerr A (2010) Introductory Biomechanics. Churchill Livingstone. Perry J (1992). Gait analysis. Normal and pathological function , SLACK Incorporated, New Jersey Levine D, Richards J & Whittle M (2012) Whittle's Gait Analysis, 5th Edition Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK. Physiology McArdle WD, Katch FI & Katch VL (2009) Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 7 th revised International edition Therapeutic exercise stretching, strengthening and aerobic exercise) Huber FE and Wells CL (2006) Therapeutic exercise: Treatment Planning for progression Elsevier Other references American College of Sports Medicine (2012) ACSM's Foundations of Strength Training and Conditioning, Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. American College of Sports Medicine (2009) ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 8th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. American College of Sports Medicine (2012) ACSM's Health/Fitness Facilities Standards and Guidelines, 4th ed. Tharrett, S.J.; McInnis, K.J.; Peterson, J.A. (eds.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. Bandy and Saunders (2006) Therapeutic exercise. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Maryland USA Bull, FC. and the Expert Working Groups. Physical Activity Guidelines in the U.K.: Review and Recommendations. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, May 2010. -360 1. Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Protection, Start Active, Stay Active: A Report on Physical Activity from the Four Home Countries' Chief Medical Officers, Department of Health, London, UK, 2011. Department of Health (2009) Be Active, Be Healthy. A plan for getting the nation moving. Department of Health 2001. Exercise Referral Systems: a National Quality Assurance Framework . London: Department of Health. [online] Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4079009.pdf. Everett T & Kell C, (2010) Human Movement: An Introductory Text. 6 th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK. Hamill J and Knutzen KM (2010) Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement. International Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, USA. Kisner and Colby (2012) Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques . F.A Davis, Philadelphia, USA 6th Revised edition Michlovitz SL, Bellew J & Nolan TP (2011) Modalities for Therapeutic Interventions Illustrated Edition F A Davis, Philadelphia, USA Nordin M and Frankel VH (2012) Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. 4 th International Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Powers SK & Howley ET (2012) Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Public Health Reports,100 (2), pp. 126-131. Scotland Physical Activity Task Force. (2003). Let's make Scotland more active: a strategy for physical activity. Healthy Living Scotland. Edinburgh. Watson T (2008) Electrotherapy: Evidence Based Practice . 12 th Edition Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK. World Health Organization, Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.

Transferrable Skills

This module will help develop and expand students' team working skills, critical thinking, providing peer feedback and self-appraisal. The integrated student led sessions with Human Movement: Anatomy and Examination will help develop and build their leadership and organisational skills. As part of practical sessions using case histories, students will enhance their problem solving skills, observation skills and note writing skills. There will be opportunities to work with digital images and graphics software thus enhancing their competencies. As part of the formative assessment student will develop time management and presentation skills.

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Independent Learning (FT) 150.00
Lectures (FT) 14.00
Practicals (FT) 82.00
Assessment (FT) 30.00
Tutorials (FT) 24.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Coursework 1 n/a 50.00 35% Coursework - 2,000 Words
Exam (Dept) 01 n/a 50.00 35% Seen Practical Exam