INDEPENDENT PRESCRIBING

SHE Level 5
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code MMB521148
Module Leader Mhairi Day
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Vision Sciences
Trimester
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

MMB521146 Ocular Therapeutics and MMB521147 Theoretical Prescribing

Summary of Content

Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics of systemically administered medicines Legal and ethical aspects of the professional autonomy of an independent prescriber Evidence based practice and clinical governance in relation to prescribing Local and national policies impacting on prescribing practice

Syllabus

Pharmaceutical and clinical knowledge Pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics of systemically administered medicines Common systemic conditions and indicative medications -Cardiovascular System: Angina and MI; Hypertension; Hyperlipidaemia; Heart failure -Respiratory System: Asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ; Gastointestinal System; Peptic ulcer disease; gastric oesopageal reflux disease (GORD) -Central Nervous System: Anxiety and Insomnia; Depression and mania; Psychosis; Parkinson's disease -Endocrine System: Diabetes -Musculo-skeletal System: Osteoarthritis; Rheumatoid arthritis -Dermatology: Acne, Eczema, Infections, Infestations, Psoriasis -Paediatrics: Diabetes, Upper respiratory tact infections; cystic fibrosis; behavioural disorders -Palliative care Potential for unwanted effects: -Ocular side-effects of systemically administered drugs -Drug-drug interactions of common systemic medications -Cautions, contraindications and side-effects with respect to patient medical and medication history of drugs used in the treatment of disorders of the eye and adnexa History taking, decision making and review -Concept of a working diagnosis -Development of a treatment plan including selection and optimization of a drug regimen Prescribing in an individual and team context: Development and maintenance of professional knowledge and competence in relation to the condition(s) which the optometrist intends to manage (with or without the prescription of drugs) Evidence based practice and clinical governance in relation to prescribing Information systems/decision making support tools Local and national policies impacting on prescribing practice Local and national frameworks for medicines use Antimicrobial use and resistance Budgetary constraints at local and national level Safe disposal of medicines

Learning Outcomes

On completion of the module, optometrist independent prescribers should be able to demonstrate:An understanding of their role as an independent prescriber, an awareness of the limitations of their clinical experience and an ability to work within the limits of their professional competenceAn understanding of the public health issues related to medicines usAn understanding of the legal, ethical and professional framework for accountability and responsibility in relation to prescribing.An ability to work within clinical governance frameworks that include audit of prescribing practice and personal development.

Teaching / Learning Strategy

This module will comprise of a two day session of introductory lectures and practicals. During this session students will be given clinical training and lectures in the diagnosis and management of various eye diseases, including the use, and interactions of topical and selected systemic medicines. The rest of the module will use a distance learning format. Students will be providedwith a series of distance learning articles and interactive case record discussions using Blackboard software. Continuous formative assessments will be set to facilitate learning.

Indicative Reading

Doughty MJ. Drugs, medications and the Eye (current edition). Smawcastellane Information Services, Helensburgh, Scotland. Tortora, Gerard J., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Ed, 1999 Snell, R S & Lemp, M A, Clinical anatomy of the eye, 2nd Ed 1998 or Oyster, C W. The Human Eye Structure & Function 1999 Saude T., Ocular anatomy and physiology, 1993. Shier, D, Butler, J & Lewis R, Hole's Human anatomy and physiology, 1986. Kanski, Jack J. Clinical ophthalmology : a systematic approach.4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, London Boston.1999. Vaughan D., Asbury T, Riordan-Eva P. General ophthalmology 14th ed.,1995. Outlines, Pocket Guides and Study Guides: Kirkness C, Ophthalmology: Pocket picture guide to medicine, 1997 Murray P & Fielder A, Pocket Book of Ophthalmology Vander JF, Gault JA, Ophthalmology Secrets, 1998. Grayson M, Arffa R. Grayson's diseases of the cornea 4th ed., 1997 Kanski, JJ. Ophthalmology : clinical signs and differential diagnosis. 1999 Roberts DK, Terry JE, Ocular Diseases Diagnosis and Treatment 2nd ed Seal, DV, Bron AJ, Hay J. Ocular Infection, 1998. Spalton DJ, Hitchings RA, Hunter PA. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology, 2nd ed. 1994. Spalton DJ, (1984) Slide Atlas of Ophthalmology. 10 Volumes Gower Medical, London. LifeLearn Eyecare CD ROM series (installed on Vision Sciences workstations): Fluroescein Angiography, Fundus Fundamentals, Virtual Eyecare Clinic: Anterior Segment and 2 Cornea Copia. Galraith, A., Galbraith A. (1999), Fundamentals of Pharmacology: a text for Nurses & Health Professionals, Addison Wesley Longman Waller, Renwick and Hillier (2001), Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, W. B. Saunders Courenay, M., Griffiths, M., (eds) (2004), Independent and Supplementary Prescribing. An Essential Guide. Cambridge: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd. DOH (1999), Review of Prescribing, Supply and Administration of Medicines Hendrick, J (2000), Law and Ethics in Nursing and Health Care. Nelson Thornes Ltd., UK Doughty. "General Pharmacology for primary eye care". Smawcastellane Information Services. Hopkins & Pearson (2007). "Ophthalmic drugs. Diagnostic and therapeutics uses". Butterworth and Heinemann. Monthly Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS). British National Formulary (BNF).

Transferrable Skills

Ability to prescribe "Level 2" drugs Ability to become a supplementary prescriber

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Practicals (FDL) 4.00
Independent Learning (FDL) 176.00
Lectures (FDL) 8.00
Assessment (FDL) 12.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Coursework 1 n/a 25.00 45% Practical Assessment 1 hr
Coursework 2 n/a 15.00 45% Case Records
Exam (School) 3.00 60.00 45% Unseen written paper