PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL PRESCRIBING

SHE Level 5
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code MMB521147
Module Leader Laura Sweeney
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Vision Sciences
Trimesters
  • C (May start)-A (September start)
  • S-C (May start)-A (September start)

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

BSc (Hons) Optometry P00305

Summary of Content

The use of medications used in the management of selective ocular conditions The development of clinical management plans, monitoring and reflecting on treatment, drug legislation. Critically assess available optometric, medical and treatment (therapeutic) strategies within an informed and flexible approach so as to meet the specific needs of patients presenting with abnormal ocular conditions or selected eye diseases

Syllabus

History taking Development of a clinical management plan Monitoring compliance and response to treatment Knowledge of natural progress of conditions being treated Identifying and reporting adverse drug reactions Knowledge of own limitations and criteria for referral Drug legislation, drug licensing Use of extension medication and supplementary prescribing in optometric practice Review of General Optical Council referral guidelines Prescription writing Sources of drug information Record keeping Clinical Governance in relation to prescribing Evidence based practice Reflective practice Working within the NHS Prescribing safely and professionally

Learning Outcomes

Following successful completion of this module, the students should be able to:-Demonstrate an ability to take a comprehensive medical history and examine the eye using agreed instrumentation and clinical techniquesDemonstrate an ability to develop and document a clinical management plan within the context of a prescribing partnershipDemonstrate an ability to critically evaluate sources of information, advice and decision support in prescribing practice, taking into account current evidence based practiceDemonstrate an understanding of the legal and professional framework for accountability and responsibility in relation to supplementary prescribingDevise appropriate referral procedures Demonstrate a basic understanding of the main concepts that are important in relation to communication and interaction with other health care professionals pertinent to the management of selected abnormal ocular conditions and eye diseases, Understand the principles of the Medicines Act and the principles of access to medicines, including the prescribing of medicines for human use.

Teaching / Learning Strategy

This module will comprise of a two day session of lectures and practicals introducing the student the theoretical and practical aspects of prescribing practice. The rest of the module will use a distance learning format to enable students to develop their prescribing skills.

Indicative Reading

Doughty MJ. Drugs, medications and the Eye (current edition). Smawcastellane Information Services, Helensburgh, Scotland. ISBN 0-7506-4500-8 Kanski, Jack J. Clinical ophthalmology : a systematic approach. 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, London Boston.1999. Crick RP, Khaw PT, A textbook of clinical ophthalmology. 2nd ed. 1997. Vaughan D., Asbury T, Riordan-Eva P. General ophthalmology 14th ed., 1995. Outlines, Pocket Guides and Study Guides: Kanski JJ, Ophthalmology: Colour Guide, 1997 Kanski, Jack J., Clinical ophthalmology : a test yourself atlas, 1995. Kanski, Jack J. Picture tests in ophthalmology. 1997. Kirkness C, Ophthalmology: Pocket picture guide to medicine, 1997 Murray P & Fielder A, Pocket Book of Ophthalmology Vander JF, Gault JA, Ophthalmology Secrets, 1998. Grayson M, Arffa R. Grayson's diseases of the cornea 4th ed., 1997 Kanski, JJ. Ophthalmology : clinical signs and differential diagnosis. 1999 Roberts DK, Terry JE, Ocular Diseases Diagnosis and Treatment 2nd ed Seal, DV, Bron AJ, Hay J. Ocular Infection, 1998. Spalton DJ, Hitchings RA, Hunter PA. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology, 2nd ed. 1994. Spalton DJ, (1984) Slide Atlas of Ophthalmology. 10 Volumes Gower Medical, London. LifeLearn Eyecare CD ROM series (installed on Vision Sciences workstations): Fluroescein Angiography, Fundus Fundamentals, Virtual Eyecare Clinic: Anterior Segment and 2 Cornea Copia. Glaucoma: 'Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma', European Glaucoma Society. Selected Studies on Glaucoma NTGS - Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study AGIS - Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study CIGTS - Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study OHTS - Ocular Hypertension Study EMGT - Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial 1) The Ocular Hypertension Treatment study. A randomized trial determines that topical ocular hypotensive medication delays or prevents the onset of POAG. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:701-703. 2) Feuer WJ, Parrish RK, Shiffman JC et al.The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study: reproducibility of cup/disk ratios measurements over time at an optic disc reading center. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;133:19-28. 3) Gordon MO, Beiser JA, Brandt JD, , Heuer DK, Higginbotham E, Johnson C, Keltner J, Miller PJ, Parrish RK, Wilson RM, Kass MA. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Baseline factors that predict the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:714-720. 4) Brandt JD, Beiser JA, Kass MA, Gordon MO, for the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) Group. Central corneal thickness in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). Ophthalmology 2001;108:1779-1788. 5) Lichter PR, Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Guire KE, Janz NK, Wren PA, Mills RP and the CIGTS Study Group Interim Clinical Outcomes in the collaborative initial Glaucoma treatment Study comparing initial treatment randomized to medication or surgery. Ophthalmology 2001;108:1943-1953 6) Schultzer M. Errors in the diagnosis of visual field progression in normal-tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1994; 101:1589-1594. 7) Comparison of glaucomatous progression between untreated patients with normal-tension glaucoma and patients with therapeutically reduced intraocular pressures. Collaborative normal tension glaucoma study group. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;126:487-497. 8) The effectiveness of intraocular pressure reduction in the treatment of normal tension glaucoma. Collaborative normal tension glaucoma study group. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;126:498-505. 9) The AGIS Investigators: The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130:429-440. 10) The AGIS Investigators: The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 4. Comparison of treatment outcomes within race. Ophthalmology 1998;105:1146-1164. 11) The AGIS Investigators: The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study, 6: Effect of cataract on visual field and visual acuity. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1639-1652. 12) The AGIS Investigators: The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study, 8: Risk of cataract formation after trabeculectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1771-1780. 13) The AGIS Investigators: The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 9. Comparison of glaucoma outcomes in black and white patients within the treatment groups. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;132:311-320. 14) Leske MC, Heijl A, Hyman L, Bengtsson B. Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial: design and baseline data. Ophthalmology 1999;106:2144-2153. 15) Heijl A, Leske MC, Bengtsson B, Hyman L, Hussein M, for the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group. Reduction of Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma Progression. Results From the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:1268-1279. 16) Leske MC, Heijl A, Hussein M, Bengtsson B, Hyman L, Konaroff E, for the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group. Factors for Glaucoma Progression and the effect of treatment. The Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:48-56. Clinical Governance/Audit: College of Optometrists Audit framework GIES scheme Prescribing: 'Evidence Based Prescribing', T Granby Clinical Risk Management: 'An introduction to clinical risk management' (2006), Chris Steele. Legislation: Medicines Act 1968 The Cumberledge report 1989 Crown report 1999 NHS Plan 2000 Additional, selected Bibliography Doughty. "Drugs, Medication and the Eye". Smawcastellane Information Services. Hopkins & Pearson (2007). "Ophthalmic drugs. Diagnostic and therapeutics uses". Butterworth and Heinemann. Monthly Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS). British National Formulary (BNF).

Transferrable Skills

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Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Assessment (FDL) 12.00
n/a 8.00
Practicals (FDL) 4.00
Independent Learning (FDL) 176.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Exam (School) 3.00 85.00 45% Unseen written paper
Coursework 1 n/a 15.00 45% Case Records