DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES

SHE Level 2
SCQF Credit Points 40.00
ECTS Credit Points 20.00
Module Code M2B521592
Module Leader Lyle Gray
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Vision Sciences
Trimester
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Summary of Content

Examination of the structure of the eye and adnexa. Recording of clinical findings by photographs and diagrammatic means. The theoretical and practical basis for investigation of a variety of forms of visual dysfunction. Interpretation of the significance of the results of investigative procedures and criteria for referral for further medical investigation

Syllabus

Instrumentation - Principles of Design and Practical Use of: -208 Direct Ophthalmoscope/Indirect ophthalmoscope/Fundus Camera/Keratometer/Corneal topographer - fundamentals/Slit Lamp Fundamental theory and practical use of diagnostic ophthalmic drugs Techniques in Ocular Examination External eye - fundamentals Direct observation/Slit lamp biomicroscopy/Keratometry External eye/cornea/anterior chamber/crystalline lens - advanced Slit-lamp biomicroscopy/Gonioscopy/Pachometry & Pachymetry/Corneal topography/Specular Microscope -208 Techniques in Ocular Examination -208 External eye - fundamentals Direct observation/Slit lamp biomicroscopy/Keratometry External eye/cornea/anterior chamber/crystalline lens - advanced Slit-lamp biomicroscopy/Gonioscopy/Pachometry & Pachymetry/Corneal topography/Specular Microscope Observation and assessment of pupils Internal eye - fundamentals Ocular media - slit lamp/Fundus - ophthalmoscopy Fundus examination - advanced BIO (binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, in particular using VOLK and SL)/ONH analysis (GDx)/OCT/Optomap/SLO Ocular biometry Ultrasound/Partial coherence interferometry Fundamental Concepts in Intraocular Pressure & Tonometry Physiological basis of IOP/Normal physiological variations in IOP/Pathological variation in IOP/Primary Open Aangle Glaucoma Principles of tonometry Indentation/Applanation/Non-contact Instrumentation Non-contact tonometers/Contact Tonometry Clinical aspects of tonometry and IOP Validity & reliability of contact & non-contact tonometry/IOP and Glaucoma Fundamental Concepts of Visual Fields and their Measurement Anatomy of the visual pathway - review/Visual pathway lesions and associated visual field loss Visual field assessment Confrontation/Bjerrum/VF screeners - Semi-automated & Automated Visual Fields - advanced Static Perimetry/Comparison of field testing strategies of specific instruments (manual & semi- automated perimeters)/Factors affecting the detection of field loss/Visual field loss indices/Colour fields/Standards for driving/Classification of field loss/Glaucomatous field loss/Toxic amblyopia Assessment of vital signs - blood pressure, pulse and respiration Practical clinical sessions b7 Elementb7 Direct ophthalmoscopyb7 Indirect ophthalmoscopyb7 Funuds Photographyb7 Pupil reflexesb7 Keratometry/Corneal Topographyb7 Slit lampb7 Non-contact tonometryb7 Visual fieldsb7 Confrontationb7 Bjerrumb7 Semi-auto VFAb7 Goldmann b7 Automated VFAs

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module, students should be able to:- Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theoretical principles of ocular measurement and examination, and obtain clinically valid measures of the ocular components.- Demonstrate the ability to examine the structures of the eye using a variety of techniques and obtain accurate photographic records of ocular structures.- Demonstrate the ability to measure the extent of any visual field loss and interpret the degree and pattern of loss in a clinical context by graphical and statistical means.- Demonstrate the ability to obtain valid clinical measurements of the intraocular pressure using both contact & non-contact techniques and interpret and evaluate the clinical significance of results.- Demonstrate an analytical approach to investigation of ocular measurement and examination

Teaching / Learning Strategy

This module comprises a programme of lectures and practical clinical sessions. Practical clinical sessions are designed to enable students to develop a range of clinical skills for the investigation of the normal and abnormal eye.

Indicative Reading

-108b7 Anderson D R Perimetry: (1987) With and Without Automation. Mosby. St. Louis. b7 Bennett A, Rabbetts R (1989) Clinical Visual Optics. Butterworths. London. b7 Davson H (1990) Physiology of the Eye. MacMillam London. b7 Drance S M, Anderson D R (1985) Automatic Perimetry in Glaucoma. Grune & Stratton Orlando. b7 Edwards K, Llewellyn R (1988) Optometry. Butterworths. London. b7 Harrington D O, Drake M V (1990) The Visual Fields. 6th Edn. Mosby St. Louis. Henson D B (1983) Optometric Instrumentation. Butterworths. London. b7 Henson D B (1993) Visual Fields OUP. New York. b7 Kritzinger E E, Beaumont H M (1987) A Colour Atlas of Optic Disc Abnormalities. Wolfe. London. b7 Muchnick B G (1994) Clinical Medicine in Optometric Practice. Mosby. St Louis. b7 Reed H, Drance S M (1972) The Essentials of Perimetry. OUP. London. b7 Eskridge, J.B., Amos, J.F. and Bartlett, J.D., (1991) Clinical Precedures in Optometry - Lippincott b7 Chaplin, N. and Edwards, R., (1998) Visual fields, Slack b7 Cunningham, D., (1998) The Slit Lamp Primer, Slack b7 Zadnik, K., (1997) The Ocular Examinations, W. B. Saunders b7 Henson D B (1983 and 1996) Optometric Instrumentation. Butterworths. London. b7 Chaplin, N. and Edwards, R., (1998) Clinical Ocular Photography, Slack b7 Cunningham, D., (1998) Clinical Ocular Photography, Slack b7 Elliot (2007) "Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care". Butterworth & Heinemann b7 Doshi & Harvey (2003) Investigative techniques and ocular examination. Butterworth & Heinemann b7 Selected references from relevant journals.-108 Selected references from relevant journals.

Transferrable Skills

-142 Use of diagnostic instrumentation. Critical interpretation and evaluation of the clinical significance of diagnostic characteristics. Use of advanced diagnostic instrumentation. Critical interpretation of evaluation of the clinical significance of diagnostic characteristics and criteria. Clinical high levels verbal and non- verbal communication development of patient-practitioner interactive skills. Social, verbal and non-verbal communication skills.

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Lectures (FT) 72.00
Independent Learning (FT) 236.00
Assessment (FT) 20.00
Practicals (FT) 72.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Coursework 1 n/a 25.00 35% Trimester 1 Practical Assessment
Coursework 2 n/a 25.00 35% Trimester 2 practical assessment
Exam (Exams Office) 2.00 50.00 35% unseen written paper