SHE Level 1
SCQF Credit Points 20.00
ECTS Credit Points 10.00
Module Code M1B521615
Module Leader Peter Rafferty
School School of Health and Life Sciences
Subject Vision Sciences
  • A (September start)-B (January start)

Summary of Content

The module will develop a deeper understanding of the materials principles and practices of Ophthalmic Dispensing: spectacle frames, repair, adjustment, lenses and measurement techniques.


Spectacle frames: materials; frame and facial measurement; adjustment; construction; properties and adjustment; raw materials for frames and lenses; manufacturing techniques for frames and lenses; repair. Common optical tools and their use Spectacle glazing; lens manufacturing methods and tooling Lens measure; use; refractive index determination Writing prescriptions; BS notation; simple transposition; common errors in practice Practical applications of ophthalmic lenses; single vision; lenticulars; bifocals; trifocals; varifocals; special lenses; lens forms; ordering; focimetry; other measurements; verification; uncut diameter - ruler and template methods); centration; Properties of surfaces, lenses and materials; availability; aberration control; astigmatic surfaces; toric transposition; aspherical and atoroidal surfaces; "best form"; brand names of ophthalmic lenses and their commercial significance Sphero-cylindrical lenses; Mathematics of: nominal and compensated lens forms; obliquely crossed cylinders; Stokes construction; astigmatic decomposition; near vision effectivity; spectacle magnification; iseikonic lenses; curve variation factor and its errors Edge and centre thickness; spherical, astigmatic and prismatic lenses Ophthalmic prisms; clinical use; Prentice rule; decentration; differential and summed prism; prism difference formula; prism splitting; distance/ near prism control Tints and coatings; underlying mathematics and practical use Hand neutralisation and centration

Learning Outcomes

1- Learning OutcomesOn completion of this module, students should be able to:Demonstrate communication skills.Develop an understanding of the production process used for spectacle framesDevelop practical skills in the fitting and supply and verification and repair of optical appliances.Develop the mathematical skills needed for the fitting and supply of optical appliances.Learn how to integrate the evidence-based knowledge from other modules into a conventional clinical frameworkAcquire the bulk of the additional theoretical and practical skills required by a Dispensing Optician.

Teaching / Learning Strategy

Some of the concepts involved in this module will be wholly novel to students, whilst others will be developed from the other modules running in parallel. A mixture of on-line and conventional tutorials will be used to introduce new material and to expand areas covered in the parallel modules in a way specific to the profession of Ophthalmic Dispensing. Students will develop their ability to reflect on their learning experience, whilst developing practical clinical skills in a supportive environment.

Indicative Reading

Cubbidge R (2010 et seq) Ophthalmic Lens Data, SC Hardy & Co Drew R (1990) Ophthalmic Dispensing, Butterworth Fowler C, Latham-Petre K (2001) Spectacle Lenses, Theory and Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann Griffiths, A I (2000) Practical Dispensing, 3rd Ed, ABDO Levene, J R (1977) Clinical Refractive & Visual Sciences, Butterworth Jalie M (1983) Practical Ophthalmic Lenses, Butterworth Jalie M (1972-2010) Principles of Ophthalmic Lenses, All Editions ABDO Jalie M (1998-2009) Ophthalmic Lenses and Dispensing, All Editions, Butterworth-Heinemann Brooks C F, Borish, I M (2007) System for Ophthalmic Dispensing 3rd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann Fowler C & Latham-Petrie K (2001) Spectacle lenses: theory and practice. Butterworth-Heineman Griffiths, A I (2000) Practical Dispensing 3rd ed, ABDO Harsant R (undated) A revision guide to ABDO part 1 practical examinations. ABDO Janney GD & Tunnacliffe AH (1997) Worked problems in ophthalmic lenses. ABDO Stoner E, Perkins P, Ferguson R. (2005) Optical Formulas Tutorial 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Wakefield K (2000) Bennett's Ophthalmic Prescription Work. Butterworth Heinemann Walsh G (2010 et seq). Programme specific document "Spectacles"

Transferrable Skills

Social, verbal and non-verbal communication skills and interview technique; sales skills and customer problem handling; manual dexterity; critical evaluation of peer-reviewed and sales literature.

Module Structure

Activity Total Hours
Tutorials (FT) 31.00
Practicals (FT) 31.00
Assessment (FT) 18.00
Independent Learning (FT) 120.00

Assessment Methods

Component Duration Weighting Threshold Description
Course Work 01 n/a 25.00 35% Class tests and assessed tutorials
Course Work 02 n/a 25.00 35% Practical and oral assessments
Exam (Exams Office) 2.00 50.00 35% unseen written paper