Conversations and interviews

Conversations and interviews

You should seek permission from the parties you are quoting. If permission is refused you may anonymise the reference. See the example below. You should also consider the appropriateness of conversations as a source. Consider whether the person you have spoken to is an expert on the subject or offers particular insights. What value do they add to your understanding of the topic?

YOUR SURNAME, First Name or Initials., Year. Conversation or interview with name of person with whom you spoke. Location of conversation/ interview, day month.

Example: SMITH, J., 2018. Conversation with Robert Jones. Glasgow, 1 June.

Anonymised: SMITH, J., 2018. Conversation with HR manager. Location withheld, 1 June.

Examples of in text citations:

The company will aim to have equal gender representation on the executive board by 2020 (Smith, 2018).

In conversation with an HR Manager Smith (2018) found that gender parity was a key strategic aim.

Creme and Lea (2008) argue that adopting the passive can help students achieve an academic writing style.