Chigago referencing: General guidelines

The following guidelines are based on the The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.).  Numbers in brackets refer to specific pages in the manual. Remember that all sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, should be cited with a note in your assignment, as well as an entry in the bibliography at the end of the assignment.

Footnotes
  • Note numbers in the text are set as superscript numbers (They look like this1). At the bottom of the page, the note numbers are normally full size and followed by a full stop. Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1. In most word processing programs, you can use the footnote feature to produce this formatting.
  • The first note referring to a work should always be a full note. Following citations for that work can be shortened. The shortened form should include just enough information to remind readers of the full title or lead them to the bibliography, usually the last name of the author(s), the key words of the main title, and the page number. Check with your lecturer whether this shortened form is acceptable. (p. 667-669). Here is an example:
    • 1. Salman Rushdie, The Ground beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 25.    
    • 2. Rushdie, The Ground beneath, 25.
  • When citing the same source in multiple footnotes one after the other, cite the source in full the first time, and then use "Ibid." for all subsequent citations until another source is cited. Once a second source has been cited, the first source must again be cited in the footnote in full the next time it is referenced. Here is an example:
    • 1. Rushdie, The Ground beneath, 25.   
    • 2. Ibid., 28.
  • When the note entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it after a colon or a double slash or before a tilde (~), period, single slash, comma or hyphen.
Bibliography
  • List Bibliography entries with a hanging indent. Here's an example:

Rhodes, Daniel. Clay and Glazes for

the potter. Rev ed. Iola, WI:

Krause Publications, 2000.

  • Bibliography entries are in one alphabetical sequence arranged by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.  They are not classified by type of source.
  • Use the author's given names and surname as listed on the title page, not the cover. If there is more than one author, list them in the order used on the title page.
  • If the Bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them alphabetically by title. A  3-em dash (---.) replaces the author's name after the first entry. Here is an example:
    •  Squire, Larry R. “The Hippocampus and the Neuropsychology of Memory.” In Neurobiology of the Hippocampus, edited by W. Seifert, 491-511. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
    • ---. Memory and Brain. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • When the note entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it after a colon or a double slash or before a tilde (~), period, single slash, comma or hyphen.