APA referencing: multiple authors

When two authors have written the source, include both their last names in your citation. If you refer to them in your sentence write the word 'and' between their names. If you write their names in brackets use &.

Hogg and Vaughan (2002) argue that aggressive behaviour can be reduced by techniques such as anger management.

and,

Aggressive behaviour can be reduced by techniques such as anger management (Hogg & Vaughan, 2002).

For three to five authors include all their last names the first time you cite the source. From then on you can just write the last name of the first author and then the abbreviation et al. which means 'and others'.

When there are six or more authors just write the last name of the first author, followed by et al. whenever you cite the source.

Sometimes you may find the information you are discussing has been written in several different sources. In this case cite them all in one set of brackets.

(Sternberg, 2001; Hogg & Vaughan, 2002; Seifert et al., 2000)

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SMILE - APA referencing by Cardiff University Information Services, adapted by Marion Kelt, GCU is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apatutorial/index.html