Footnotes and bibliography

Numerical referencing: the foot/end note list and the bibliography

The foot/end note list is a list of all the sources that have been cited in the assignment. The list is in numerical order showing books, journals, webpages and other sources. All sources are in this list regardless of type. 
There may be items which you have consulted for your work, but not cited. These can be listed at the end of your assignment in a bibliography. These items should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your foot/endnote list.
You can either have a footnote list where all the references are at the bottom of each page or an endnote list at the end of the assignment/chapter.

  • The list should be in numerical order and each number matches and refers to the one in the text
  • Books, paper journal articles, ejournal articles, and so on are laid out in a particular format that must be followed
  • Ibid. can be used when the details of an item have been referred to directly before in the previous reference
  • Op. Cit. can be used when the details of an item have been referred to before but other references have occurred in between
  • You can use square brackets or superscript. Example 1 uses superscript.

Example 1
1 Picard, J. Logistics and the Borg, Starbug Tribune, 2004, 36 (4): 44-9. 
2 Ibid. 45 
3 Rymer, J., Smith, T. & Jones. E. Nottingham Forest - Dream Team, Blackwell, London, 2005. pp. 67-98. 
4 Asperger's Syndrome. [Online] Available from: [Accessed 19th September 2002]. 
5 Rymer, Op. Cit. p. 94.

The following page gives layouts for foot/end note lists.