APA referencing

APA (American Psychological Association) referencing

If you are submitting a piece of work to the Psychology or Forensic Investigation departments of GCU, you may be asked to use the APA style of referencing. These pages will help you reference using the APA 5th edition style.

Here is an example of APA style:
Text including citations

The most influential theory of associative learning has been the Rescorla-Wagner (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) model (RWM). Although originally proposed to describe Pavlovian conditioning, a number of researchers have adopted the RWM to explain human causal reasoning (for example, Shanks, 1985; Shanks & Dickinson, 1987; Wasserman, Elek, Chatlosh, & Baker, 1993).


Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.),Classical conditioning II: Current theory and research (pp. 64-99). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.

Shanks, D. R. (1985). Continuous monitoring of human contingency judgment across trials.Memory & Cognition, 13, 158-167.

Shanks, D., & Dickinson, A. (1987). Associative accounts of causality judgment. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 21, pp. 229-261). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Wasserman, E. A., Elek, S. M., Chatlosh, D. L., & Baker, A. G. (1993). Rating causal relations: Role of probability in judgments of response-outcome contingency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 174-188.

Extract taken from: Buehner, M. J., Cheng, P. W., & Clifford, D. (2003). From Covariation to Causation: A Test of the Assumption of Causal Power. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 1119-1140.

Creative Commons Licence
PILOT - APA referencing by Cardiff University Information Services, adapted by Marion Kelt, GCU is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apatutorial/index.html