My primary research interest is the informal learning undertaken by knowledge workers and the personal learning networks they construct to support this learning. At the Caledonian Academy I have been involved in a study exploring knowledge workers learning practices at Shell, examined learning in connectivist MOOCs, supervised a PhD student exploring research student learning by examining their employability development, and undertaken some more 'blue sky thinking': specifying tools to support knowledge worker learning through a process we call 'Charting'. You can find some of my current work on this site at:
My first PhD student, Elena Golovushkina completed her studies in January 2013 successfully defending her thesis entitled: Employability development in the context of PhD studies: Exploring the views and experiences of key stakeholders.
Finding Me Online
You can find traces of me in many places in the web. A good starting point is my professional blog: http://worklearn.wordpress.com/ or on twitter @cdmilligan (here is my twitter archive). You can also try:
Although initially trained as a Genetics/Molecular Biology researcher (my PhD involved site selected mutagenesis using I-factor retrotransposons and differential cloning of cDNAs expressed in the heads of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies)), I have worked in the area of learning and development since the summer of 1993 when I started out preparing electronic and distance learning materials for University of Paisley courses being delivered in Hong Kong. I eventually returned to a predominantly research based role as a Research Fellow at the Caledonian Academy within Glasgow Caledonian University in 2007. During my career, I have undertaken a variety of roles in Further and Higher Education, in the commercial sector and as partner in a commercial consultancy. These diverse roles have given me a broad range of experience in all aspects of learning and development, particularly where technology can support and enhance the learning process. Working in learning and development has instilled in me the belief that research should, where possible, both inform practice, and advance knowledge.
Some of my previous (often more development oriented) work has involved:
- conceptualsing learning environments which are centred on the needs of the individual learner rather than restricted by limitations imposed by the institution (describing the original ‘Personal Learning Environment’ with CETIS).
- examining the barriers and mechanisms for sharing learning content (project managing the JISC-funded CD-LOR project).
- describing the emerging concepts of the Virtual Learning Environment (back in the dawn of time) and working on other projects promoting the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning at ICBL at Heriot Watt University
- unpacking the complex relationship of paper-based and computer assisted assessment, and going beyond multiple choice tests in electronic assessment, with SCROLLA, in a different part of Heriot-watt University.
- examining the role of technology in supporting formative assessment practices which enhance the learning experience.
- designing and creating learning content which engages and stimulates the learner (work on simulations and assessment with MultiVerse and JeLSIM),
- designing learning experiences, and considering the role of standards in supporting the adoption of best practice content and learning management (the Reload project).
Here is a list of my learning related publications (as opposed to Genetics related ones). See my profiles at Academia.edu, GoogleScholar, ORCID, figshare, ResearchGate, Zotero and Mendeley for further information. Please feel free to make contact in any of these ways. I try to 'green archive' my publications where possible. If you can't find a paper, get in touch and I will identify a version I am permitted to share! Together with my colleagues at the Caledonian Academy I have one book chapter under review at the present time, and one paper which has been accepted subject to minor amendments.
Forthcoming Refereed Journal Publications
- Golovushkina, E., & Milligan, C. (2013, forthcoming). Employability development in the context of doctoral studies: systemic tensions and the views of key stakeholders. International Journal of Training and Development 17 (3). (r) Abstract: Employability development in the context of doctoral studies
- Margaryan, A., Littlejohn, A., & Milligan, C. (2013, forthcoming). Self-regulated learning in the workplace: Learning goal attainment strategies and factors. International Journal of Training and Development 17 (4). Abstract: SRL in the Workplace
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (forthcoming). Abstract: Managers as workplace learning facilitators. International Journal of Human Resource Development and Management (r)
Refereed Journal Publications
- Milligan, C., Margaryan, A., and Littlejohn, A., (2013). Learning at transition for new and experienced staff. Journal of Workplace Learning 25 (4) 217-230. (r)
- Golovushkina, E., & Milligan, C. (2012). Developing early stage researchers: employability perceptions of social science doctoral candidates. International Journal for Researcher Development, 3(1), 64-78. (r)
- Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C., & Margaryan, A. (2012). Collective knowledge: Supporting self-regulated learning in the workplace.Journal of Workplace Learning, 24(3) 226-238.
- Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C., & Margaryan, A. (2011). Collective learning in the workplace: Important knowledge sharing behaviours.International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 4(4) 26-31.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2011). Validation of Davenport’s Classification Structure of Knowledge-intensive Processes. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(4), 568-581.
- Wilson, S., Liber, O., Beauvoir, P., Milligan, C., Johnson, M., & Sharples, P. (2007) Personal Learning Environments: Challenging the dominant design of educational systems. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society 3 (2) 27-38.
- Milligan, C.D., Beauvoir, P., & Sharples, P., (2005) The Reload Learning Design Tools. Journal of Interactive Media in Education (Advances in Learning Design. Special Issue, eds. Colin Tattersall, Rob Koper), 2005/07. ISSN:1365-893X
- Thomas, R.C. & Milligan, C.D. (2004). Putting Teachers in the Loop: Tools for Creating and Customising Simulations. Journal of Interactive Media in Education (Designing and Developing for the Disciplines Special Issue), 2004 (15). ISSN:1365-893X
Refereed Book Chapters
- Milligan, C. (2013, forthcoming). Chapter 15: Commentary on 'Technologies for Professional Learning'. In Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (Eds.). Technology-enhanced professional learning: Processes, practices and tools. ppxx-yy. London, Routledge.
- Beetham, H., Littlejohn, A., and Milligan, C., (2012) Digital Literacies for the Research Institution in Andrews, R., Borg, E., Davis, S.B., Domingo, M., & England, J., (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Digital Dissertations and Theses. pp 63-80. London, Sage. Abstract: Digital literacies for the research institution.
- Nicol, D. J. & Milligan, C. (2006). Conceptualising technology-supported assessment in terms of the seven principles of good feedback practice. In Gibbs, G., Bryan, C., & Clegg, K. (Eds.), Innovative Assessment in Higher Education, pp 64-77. London, Routledge Falmer.
- Ashton, H.S., Beevers, C. E., Milligan, C. D., Schofield, D. K., Thomas, R. C., Youngson, M. A., (2005). Moving Beyond Objective Testing In Online Assessment. In Howell, S.L., (Ed.). Online Assessment & Measurement, Volume II: Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate pp116-128 Information Science Publishing, Hershey, PA. . Abstract: Abstract: Moving Beyond Objective Testing In Online Assessment.
Refereed Conference Papers and Abstracts
- Milligan, C., Margaryan, A., and Littlejohn, A., (2013). Goal-setting behaviour in massive open online courses. EARLI 2013 Conference. Munich Germany, 27-31 August, 2013 (www.earli2013.org/).
- Milligan, C., Margaryan, A., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Supporting goal formation, sharing and learning of knowledge workers. In Ravenscroft, A. et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of European Conference on Technology-Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL), LNCS 7563 pp. 519—524. Heidelberg: Springer.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). What is learned through work? A typology of professional learning in the workplace. In Gijbels, D., Donche, V., Van Den Bossche, P., Stets, A., Van Waes, S., and Aerts, A. (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the 6th EARLI SIG 14 Learning and Professional Development Conference ‘Learning in Transition’ p. 130, University of Antwerp, 22-24 August 2012, Antwerp, Belgium.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2011). Managers’ roles in facilitation of workplace learning. In Proceedings of 2011 Researching Work and Learning (RWL) Conference, Shanghai, China.
- Golovushkina, E. & Milligan, C. (2012) ‘Enhancing learning and employability of doctoral candidates in social sciences: results of a mixed methods study’, Society for Research into Higher Education Conference, Newport, Wales, December 2012
- Golovushkina, E. & Milligan, C. (2012) ‘Self-perceived employability of doctoral candidates in social scientists in Scottish Higher Education Institutions’, British Sociological Association Postgraduate Conference ‘Employability and the Graduate Labour Market’, Leicester, UK.
- Golovushkina, E. & Milligan, C. (2012) ‘Analysing development of employability of doctoral candidates through Activity Theory lens’, Conference proceedings, Improving Student Learning conference, Lund, Sweden, p.48.
- Golovushkina, E., and Milligan, C., (2011). Developing employability skills of doctoral researchers in social sciences: exploring students’ perceptions. In Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the European Association of Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), pp.595-596. Exeter, UK.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2011). A typology of informal learning in the workplace. In Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the European Association of Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), pp. 2048-2049. Exeter, UK.
- Littlejohn, A., Margaryan, A, & Milligan, C. (2009). Charting collective knowledge: Supporting self-regulated learning in the workplace. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) 2009.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Self-regulated learning and knowledge sharing in the workplace: Differences and similarities between experts and novices. In Proceedings of the 2009 Researching Work and Learning (RWL) Conference, Roskilde, Denmark.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., & Littlejohn, A. (2009). Self-regulated learning in the workplace: Enhancing knowledge flow between novices and experts. Round table discussion, European Association of Research in Learning and Instruction. Biannual Conference 2009, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
- Margaryan, A., Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., Hendrix, D., & Graeb-Koenneker, S. (2009). Self-regulated learning and knowledge sharing in the workplace. In Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Organisational Learning, Knowledge and Capabilities (OLKC), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
- Milligan, C.D., Beauvoir, P., Johnson, M.W., Sharples, P., Wilson, S.B., & Liber, O. (2006) Developing a Reference Model to describe the Personal Learning Environment, LNCS 4227, 506-511. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Heraklion, 2006
- Wilson, S.W., Liber, O., Beauvoir, P., Milligan, C.D., Johnson, M.W., & Sharples, P., (2006) Personal Learning Environments: Challenging the dominant design of educational systems. Paper presented at: Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management (LOKMOL and L3NCD) Heraklion October 2006.
- Johnson, M.W., Liber, O., Wilson, S., Sharples, P, Milligan, C.D., & Beauvoir, P., (2006) Mapping the Future: The personal learning environment reference model and emerging technology In Whitelock, D. & Wheeler, S. (Eds). The next generation. Research Proceedings of the 13th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2006). pp182-191 Held 5–7 September 2006, Heriot-Watt University, Scotland, UK.
- Thomas, R. C., Ashton, H.S., Austin, W.J., Beevers, C.E., Edwards, D., & Milligan, C. D. (2005) Cost Effective use of Simulations in Assessment, Proceedings of the Ninth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference (pp. 421-430). Leicestershire, United Kingdom, Loughborough University.
- Thomas, R., Ashton, H., Austin, B., Beevers, C., Edwards, D., & Milligan, C.D. (2004). Assessing Higher Order Skills using Simulations. Proceedings of Eighth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference (pp417-427), Leicestershire, United Kingdom, Loughborough University.
- Thomas, R. C., & Milligan, C. D. (2003). Online assessment of practical experiments. Proceedings of the Seventh International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference (pp. 421–430). Leicestershire, United Kingdom, Loughborough University.
Articles, Reports and Whitepapers
email@example.com - +44 141 331 8495Caledonian Academy, Glasgow Caledonian UniversityGlasgow G4 0BA, Scotland, UK
- Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C., & Margaryan, A. (2012). Charting collective knowledge: Technology-enhanced professional learning. Innovation Review, 11, 26-33 [http://innovation.cicstart.org/?vcabid=cneSpclcSnrcnpg]
- Milligan, C.D. (2003). Question and Test Interoperability (QTI): Extending the specification for Mathematics and Numerical Disciplines. LTSN MathSTOR CAA Series, November 2003 [http://ltsn.mathstore.ac.uk/articles/maths-caa-series/nov2003/index.shtml]
- Milligan, C.D., Gordon, J., and Christie, B., (2002) eLearning Standards Report: A Resource for the Scottish eLearning Industry, [written for Scottish Enterprise]
- Milligan, C.D., (1999) The Role of Virtual Learning Environments in the Online Delivery of Staff Development, [written for JISC, available from: http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/jtap-573/deliverables.html]
- Milligan, C.D., (1999) Delivering Staff and Professional Development using Virtual Learning Environments, [written for JISC, available from: http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/jtap-573/deliverables.html].